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FAQS

Marquis Collection FAQS

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

PRODUCT

Porcelain is a ceramic material with very low water absorption (less than 0.5%), which gives it the property of being frost resistant, making it the most recommended material for outdoor installation. It has also characteristics of hardness and resistance that make it better than other ceramic products.

Ceramics are composed of natural materials, and there are many variables in the production process that can affect the final product, both in shade and size. For this reason, products are separated by shade and caliber, in order to guarantee customers the uniformity of the product they receive.

There may be two reasons:
– On the one hand, ceramics are composed of natural materials, and there are many variables in the production process that can affect the final product. Small variations in the raw materials, composition or manufacturing parameters may cause small differences in colour. For this reason, our products are separated by shade.
– On the other hand, some of our products have a strong shade variation, in order to be as similar as possible to the natural products they imitate (wood, stone, clay…). In these cases, it is not advisable to compare the product piece by piece, but rather to make a panel with several pieces to observe the effect of the shade variation. The level of shade variation of each model is identified in our catalogue.

There may be two reasons:
– On the one hand, ceramics are composed of natural materials, and there are many variables in the production process that can affect the final product. Small variations in the raw materials, composition or manufacturing parameters may cause small differences in colour. For this reason, our products are separated by shade.
– On the other hand, some of our products have a strong shade variation, in order to be as similar as possible to the natural products they imitate (wood, stone, clay…). In these cases, it is not advisable to compare the product piece by piece, but rather to make a panel with several pieces to observe the effect of the shade variation. The level of shade variation of each model is identified in our catalogue.

STANDARDS & RULES

Yes, there are applicable standards to ceramic tiles. Specifically, Standard UNE-EN-ISO 14411 (ISO 13006) defines the classification, characteristics, and requirements that this type of product should meet. In addition, there are specific standards for each of the technical characteristics that they need to meet, as well as the tests that are required to obtain them. GAYAFORES complies with all these requirements, and in addition our acceptance ranges are much stricter than those established by the Standards, to guarantee the satisfaction of our customers with our product.

No complaints should be processed for already placed product. On the one hand, it is the installer responsibility to check tiles before they are placed. In addition, many of the complaints about installed product are often due to incorrect installation, use, cleaning or maintenance. Complaints only should be accepted where the defect is due to a material problem that does not appear until after a period of time. This fact is stated on all our product boxes.

TILES PLACEMENT

Porcelain tiles (Group BIa) main characteristic is their very low water absorption. For this reason, not every type of bonding material is valid for this class of products. The recommended bonding materials must be chemically bonded. For this reason, at least type C2 cementitious adhesive (glue cement) should be used, and better performing bonding materials (type D or R) may be used. The tiles placement never should be carried out using traditional methods with mortar and sand. Below is a link to a very complete document about bonding materials:

DIFFERENT TYPES OF TILE ADHESIVES

Porcelain tiles (absorption group BIa) are characterized by high strength and hardness, so some considerations must be taken into account. This material can be cut with a traditional ceramic dry cutter («rubi»), but by selecting a suitable cutting rolls for this type of product. Specifically, for porcelain tiles, the following Rubi brand cutting rolls should be used: TM-TX01992, TM-TX01959 and TZ-TX 01900. It can also be cut without problem using a radial or waterjet saw. Below is a video of our main supplier of cutting equipment, with a machine prepared for cutting porcelain tiles:

CUTTING PORCELAIN TILES

When selecting the product, the ideal is to choose materials with low water absorption. In that case, our porcelain products are perfect. In addition, the product must be placed properly, with the right bonding material and laid in a thin layer. And above all, in wet areas, the grout plays a fundamental role, as it must be highly impermeable; therefore, grouts of the improved cementitious type (CG2(W)) or reactive resin (RG) should be chosen.

There are several installation techniques for ceramic tiles. The most recommended with today’s products is thin-layer tile installation, using a notched trowel. Below is a video explaining the best way to set tiles:

TILE PLACEMENT BEST TECHNIQUES

1) About choosing the product, porcelian tiles must always be selected for its low water absorption. In addition, it must have adequate slip resistance.
2) Thin-bed tile installation with the appropriate bonding material.
3) It is important to use expansion joints, and suitable grouting material, if possible with high waterproofing.
4) Suitable slopes for water drainage.

As we recommend in our boxes and in our catalogue, long tiles, as boards, must be overlapped at a maximum of 15%. This recommendation allows us to minimize the effect of the flatness of the pieces that this type of product may have and ensure an optimal finish after placement.

Ceramic tiles should not be set without joints, as these joints have a triple function:
1) To absorb the compressive and tensile stresses that may occur.
2) To avoid humidity problems, due to vapour diffusion from the lower layers.
3) To absorb dimensional deviations (in length and width) of the tiles.

The width of the tile-to-tile joint should be chosen depending on the type and size of the tile, its dimensional tolerances, type of substrate,… In accordance with these considerations, our recommendations are:
– A joint between 1.5 and 3 mm is recommended for products with very little dimensional variation, such as rectified tiles.
– A joint between 3 and 5 mm is recommended for large formats on stable supporting surface.
– A joint of 5 mm or more is recommended for materials with high dimensional variability, unstable supports,…
– Ceramic tiles should not be set without a joint.
– In addition to purely technical considerations, aesthetic considerations are also important, so for this reason a joint higher than the technically recommended one can be used, with the aim of having a better finish.

TILE JOINTS

Nowadays, there are grout materials of various colours and shades. When choosing the colour of this material, aesthetic aspects should be taken into account (combination of colours, shade continuity,…); but technical issues should also be considered, such as cleaning.

In addition to the tile-to-tile joints, it is necessary to put movement joints in the placement (structural, perimeter and expansion joints). They are necesssary in both horizontal and vertical installations. Their purpose is to absorb the stresses from all the elements involved in the tile installation, because this system includes the ceramic tile, the bonding material, and the substrate. All these elements and their interactions may undergo variations, whether due to structural movements, changes in temperature and/or humidity,…
Therefore, when installing ceramic tiles, it is necessary to take into account these types of joints, both structural and perimeter.

As a general rule, movement joints should be laid every 16-25 m2 outdoors or 25-40 m2 indoors. However, there are many architectural factors (size of the tile, shape of the room, additional factors such as underfloor heating or direct sunlight,…), which may modify these general criteria, and for which a study by a qualified technician will be required.

More information can be found in the following website:

MOVEMENT JOINTS

USAGE RECOMMENDATIONS

Porcelain tiles, due to its technical characteristics, is the most versatile type of ceramic material, so it can be set on walls and floors, indoors and outdoors, always following the appropriate installation guidelines.

It is not at all advisable. These materiales ussually have a specific texture to ensure proper slip-resistance, which can make regular maintenance and cleaning inside the home difficult.

It is not advisable to use ceramic tiles inside a swimming pool, as there are other materials, such as gresite, suitable for this purpose. However, ceramic tiles can be used without any problem in all the surroundings of the pool, being in this case essential to choose a product with high slip-resistance (anti-slip products).

Ceramic floors are perfect to be used with underfloor heating systems. Their thermal mass and high conductivity result in a floor that provides radiant heat quickly and also retains heat well, making the system highly reactive and efficient.
Choosing a ceramic floor with underfloor heating system results in rooms heated gently and evenly, and ceramic floor becomes a welcoming and comfortable surface.
The radiant heat from the underfloor heating does not dry the air like many conventional systems and no dust will be moved around that might produce allergic reactions.

Mosaics keep the technical characteristics of the base tiles from which they come. For this reason, there is no problem in setting them as flooring. However, special care should be taken to ensure that this type of material is installed correctly.

There is no problem in using ceramic porcelain tiles on the outside of any fireplace. However, it should not be used inside the fireplace, where refractory materials are more advisable.

For a garage, materials with high mechanical resistance are recommended, such as porcelain tiles. However, their correct placement is also critical. In addition, it is recommended to choose easy to clean products , according their shade and texture.

Materials with relief are usually recommended for installation as wall covering (installation group W), because they can cause problems when walking on them if they are placed on the floor. In addition, the highest points of these reliefs will suffer greater wear than lower parts. Therefore, it is not recommended to use tiles with relief on the floor.

USE AND MAINTENANCE

Many of the problems of dirt and difficulty in cleaning are caused by incorrect cleaning at the end of the work, and specifically with the existence of remains of grouting material that we distribute evenly over the entire surface when we try to clean them. What happens is that a thin film of these grouts or bonding materials remains, practically unnoticeable, which only retains the dirt.
Therefore, when it happens, it is necessary to carry out a thorough «end of work cleaning», removing these remains by using specific descaling or removal cleaning products, always from prestigious suppliers and scrupulously complying with their recommendations for use.
A large part of the remains of the bonding material or grout that must be cleaned after a work can be removed with water, using a mop or cloth. However, some material remains may be more difficult to clean, either because of their nature or because they are embedded in the relief of the tiles. For this cleaning, do not use hydrochloric acid (salfuman). The use of specific products is recommended, such as the one proposed below:

DETERDEK, from FILA

For tiles daily cleaning, use only hot water and a diluted household detergent or ammonia. Do not use aggressive products or products containing acids, especially salfuman or hydrofluoric acid.

Porcelain tiles (absorption group BIa) are characterised by its high resistance and hardness. When trying to make a hole, a specific drill bit for this type of material should be used, as well as a drill of adequate power and at the speeds indicated by the manufacturer. In addition, it is recommended that a small blow with a nail be took at the point to be drilled to «break» the glass surface of the tile. It is recommended to use electric drills without hammer mode. Below are examples of porcelain drill bits:

TILE DRILL BITS

Once the surface of the ceramic tiles has been damaged, there is no reliable repair technique. The best recommendation that can be given is to replace the affected tile.

Ceramic tiles should never be polished. This technique is suitable for other types of materials, such as natural stone or terrazzo.

Whitish stains on the floor are usually caused by the lime in the water. For their removal there are several products that can be used, from a commercial anti-lime, to products such as vinegar or lemon. The effect of one or the other will depend on the amount of lime accumulated.